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Al Yaqubi

Al Yaqubi was born in Baghdad,Iraq. He was a Muslim geographer. Al Ya’qubi wrote only three books, named Kitab al Tarikh al Kabir, Kitab al Buldan, Akhbar al Umam. He lived in Khorasan and Armenia. Al Ya qubi died in 897 AD. In this page you can see the information about the great geographer Al Ya'qubi.

Biography Al Yaqubi

Musalmano ne geographic ko jo taraqqi di hai. Us ki hesiyat ilmi nahi thi, bal ke zarorat ne inhe is taraf maiyl kiya tha, kyun ke Islam ke ibtedai zamane he mein in ka asar beroni mumalik mein phel gaya tha aur ser o sayahat ki zaroriyat nagurez ho gait hi. Tareekh ka jahan tak talluq hai, yeh bat paya e sabot ko pohanch chuki hai, ke behar hind ko aboor karne wale musalman the. Wo Africa ke mashraqi sahil se le kar malabarh, Indonesia aur China tak jate the. Sindh mein fateh ki hesiyat se aae the aur 221 tak Sindh, Punjab aur Kashmir ko fatah kar liya tha, lekin tajir, mubaligh, siyah aur fateh ki hesiyat se wo jahan bhi gae aur jin logon se mile un ki rodadein likhi aur behrober ki shahrahon, nae nae jagahon aur wahan ke tabbi halaat ke zikar kiya, jis ke natije mein aalmi geographic mein besh qeemat izafa hua.

Is mein koi shukk nahi ke is se pehle yunanis ko geography ka ilm tha, lekin musalmano ne jab is maidan mein qadam rakha to Europe mein geography ki hesiyat aik bholi basri kahani ki ho gait hi. Is liye aik taraf to musalmano ne is ilm ko wo jis halat mein bhi mila, Arabic mein muntaqil kar ke mehfooz kiya. Phir apne tajurbat ke sath is mein izafe ke liye bilkhasoos batilmos ke riyazati geography ko inho ne aur aage barhaya. 10 century eisvi mein Ibn Hauqal se e kar 14 century eiswi mein Ibn Batota tak jo safarname shaey hue un se maloom hota hai ke wo karra e arz ki siyahat mein yunanis se aage nikal chuke the. Phir hukma ne jis mein Al Biruni, Ibn Khaloon shamil hain. Uloom tareekh aur geography ko aise buland meyar par pohnchaya, jahan wo is se pehle nahi pohanche the.

Musalmano ki awwaleen geographies mein Ibn Khurdad ( Abu Al Qasim Bin Abdullah ) ka naam aata hai, jo 202 hijri mein guzre hain. Inho ne apni kitab mein mashraqi mumalik ki un shahrahon ka zikar kiya hai ke jin par tijarti qafile guzarte the. Is ke 50 saal bad Al Ya’qubi ka zikar aata hai, jinho ne geography ko aik baqaiyda ilm ki hesiyat di. Inhe Islamic geographies ka bawa Aadam bhi kehte hain. Kyun ke inho ne tamam Geographies se hat kar aik nae raah mutayyan kit hi, jo bad ki geographies ke liye aik bunyad sabit hui. In ka pora naam Ahmad Bin Yaqoob tha, lekin wo Al Ya’qubi ke naam se famous hua. Qadeem kitabon mein is ke mutalliq bohat kam likha gaya tha. Hatta ke maurikh ya quwwat ne bhi is se mutalliq chand he sutrein likhi hain. Is ke ilawa in ka zikar bohat se kitabon mein aaya hai. Lekin tafseel kahin nahi hai. Aik jaded research ke mutabiq haal he mein in ke kuch waqeyat manzar e aam par aae hain.

Kaha jata hai ke wo Abbasi Khalifa Al Mansoor ke aik azaad karda Ghulam Waseh ke khandan se the. Yeh Khurasan mein paida hue the. Inho ne jin mulkon ka safar kia wo Misar, Aar mina waghera hain. Inho ne yeh safar husool e ilm ke liye kiya tha. Yaqoot ke beyan ke mutabiq in ki maut 284 mein waqey hui. Aik maghrabi mohqiq Brooklyn ka yeh bhi yehi khayal hai. In ki tasaneef mein sirf 3 books ke naam milte hain, 1. Kitab ul tareekh Kabeer. 2. Kitab ul Baldan. 3. Akhbar ul Umam, lekin yeh bat qareen qiyas nahi hai ke is paya ke aalim ne sirf 3 books likhi hain ya to us ki dosri tasaneef waste ho gai hain. Ya kisi dosri zaban mein muntaqil ho gai hain, jin ka filhal koi suragh nahi milta. Aisa hona aen mumkin hai, kyun ke us zamane mein riwaj ke mutabiq beron mumalik ke talba tehseel ilm ke liye aate the aur yahan se aesi kitabein le jate the, jin ki ziyada naqlein na hui hon ya un ki naqal ki naubat he na aai ho. Wasooq ke sath nahi kaha ja sakta ke Al Ya’qubi ke sath kya saneha pesh aaya hai, lekin in ki tasaneef ki mukammal fohrisat na milne ka aur koi jawaz nahi hai. Phir in 3 kitabon mein sirf 2 kitabein tareekh kabeer aur kitab ul baldan maujood hain aur mukhatlif zabano mein in ke tarajum shaey ho chuke hain, lekin akhbar ul umam napaid hain.

Kitab ul tareekh Islam se pehle aur Islam ke bad ki tareekh Yaqoobi bhi kaha jata hai. In ki pehli jild mein Islam se pehle ke hallat hain aur is silsile mein Hazrat Adam se le kar Hazrat Essa tak ke paighambaron aur deeni peshwao ka tazkara hai. Phir Babli aur hindi badshahon ki tafseel, baznatini aur Irani saltanaton ka haal, Yunan ke philosopher aur un ke nazariyat ki tashreeh, Chinese aur Misri hukmarano aur sikander aazam ke auhed ki tafseel di hai. Sudan, Habsha, Sham, Yaman, aur Arab Countries ke halaat aur Arab ki famous mandiyon ki rodaad hai. Aakhri 50 pages mein Hazrat Ismail ki aulad ke halaat hain. Dosri jild mein Rasool Allah S.A.W.W. ki seerat aur chaon Khulfa se le kar bani Amiya aur bani Abbas ke halaat 59 tak milte hain.

Al Ya qubi ne pehli martaba tareekh ko adwaar mein taqseem kiya hai. Tibri aur al balazri ke yahan aesi tarteeb nahi hai. Al Ya’qubi ilm riyaz mein Moosa Al Khwarizmi ka bohat munaqid maloom hota hai, jo is se pehle guzara hai. Wo is riyazidan ka zikar apni books mein karte hain. Is ki kitab ul baldan aik nae tarz ka geography hai, jis mein arzi tabiyat ke sath insane talluq ko bhi wazeh kiya gaya hai. In ke kaam se andaza hota hai ke wo apne ahead se bohat aage the. Zameen se mutalliq in ka khayal tha ke wo ball ki tarah hai aur aasman ke wast mein waqey hai. In ka muheet 9,000 farsung hai. In ka shumali aur wasti hissa aabad hai, lekin zameen ka nisf hissa jo karra ke dosri taraf hai, gher aabad hai. Is ka matlab yeh hai ke America ka inhe ilm tha. In ke bad aane wale geographies mein al Biruni ka yeh bhi khayal tha ke karra zameen ko mutawazin rakhne ke liye is ki dosri taraf zameen ka hona zarori hai. Goya yeh geographies America ki ittefaqia daryaft se pehle is ka ilm rakhte the aur is ki simt se bhi waqif the. Kitab ul baldan jise mufassil geography kehte the, is ke aakhri zamane ki tasneef hai aur in ki zindagi ke tajurbat aur ghaur o fikar ka nichore hai. Is bunyad par bad ke aane wale geographies ne jo tameer ki hai, un mein istakhra al masoodi, al biruni, yaqoot Idrees aur Salam shamil hain. Aakhir ul zikar geographies ko koh e qaaf aur koh ul tani ki bulandi napne aur dewaar e china ki tehqiqaat karne par mamoor kiya gaya tha. Jise inho ne barhi khush isloobi se anjaam diya tha. Kitab ul baldan mein inho ne mukhtalif mumalik ka zikar karte hue in ke tabai halaat barhi sharah o tafseel se beyan kiye hain. In mein se akser aise hain, jahan wo khud nahi gae.

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